The Latest

Big Banks and Small Businesses

Sources: FFIEC Community Reinvestment Act, available at, U.S. Census Bureau County Population Totals, available at
Small businesses contribute to the dynamism and growth of the U.S. economy. Our new research shows how Forum members provide a significant amount of credit to small businesses across America.
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The Value and Strength of America’s Largest Financial Institutions

Sources: Federal Reserve data, Assets and Liabilities of Commercial Banks in the United States – H.8, available at; FR Y-9C data, available at
Our institutions support economic growth and a number of steps have led to a more resilient financial sector. Learn more in our new briefing slide deck.
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Profitability, the Economy, and Regulation

Profits at most industries are up; the goal of regulation is to ensure safety and soundness. Learn more in our briefing slide deck.
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Market Liquidity and Regulation

A steady stream of research is finding that regulation is having real, measurable effects on market liquidity.  While there is evidence on both sides, research is pointing to diminished liquidity.
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Study: Understanding the Economics of Large Banks

In a research report, The Clearing House Association examines the role of large banks in the economy and considers the benefits that would be lost in their absence.
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Large Banks Funding Advantage

The GAO’s analysis suggests that large bank holding companies had lower funding costs than smaller ones during the financial crisis. Most models suggest such advantages may have declined or reversed.
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Center for Capital Markets Competitiveness Report: International Financial Markets: A Diverse System is the Key to Commerce

The report offers an overview of how a diverse global financial system works to spur economic growth and job creation.
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Federal Financial Analytics: The Regulatory Price-Tag: Cost Implications of Post-Crisis Regulatory Reform

A qualitative study based on public data by Federal Financial Analytics found that costs borne by the six largest U.S. banking organizations since the financial crisis totaled at least $70.2 billion.
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Federal Reserve Note: On the Benefits of Universal Banks: Concurrent Lending and Corporate Bond Underwriting

A note from Federal Reserve Board describes how large financial institutions provide both lending and underwriting services to businesses of all sizes, and thereby exhibit important economies of scope
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